The Cuts of gemstones

Gemstones (sometimes known as "precious stones") come in six basic cuts. As a general rule only translucent, semi-translucent or clear gemstones are cut with facets.

Cuts:

The cabachon (flat on the bottom and rounded on the top) is the oldest and the most common cut I use. Some stones (such as opals) only come as cabachons. Cabachons come in round, oval, square, triangular, and even octagonal cuts. The height of the dome varies.
cabachon cut
The round brilliant cut is the most popular faceted cut for most stones, including diamonds. This cut refracts the most light, although it may sometimes, depending on the particular stone, not be the cut the lapidarist (stone cutter) uses.
Diamond Cut
Oval Cut
The oval cut is a modification of the round brilliant cut. Most faceted stones are cut both as round and oval.
The emerald cut is a cut which is less refractive but very popular for cutting emeralds. Variations of this cut are the square and trillion.
Pear Cut
The pear cut is less common but still very popular.
The marquise cut is used almost exclusive used with diamonds.
There are many other types of cuts of gemstones, cushion top, rose cut, fancy cut, etc. These cuts are relatively rare compared to the six cuts described above.
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